Yes Sir, Yes Ma’am

The logic of Southern manners and the benefits of social grace.

“Yes what?”
“Yes, sir.”

My father would run me through this refrain every time I failed to say that final magic word. “Sirs” and “Ma’ams” were mandatory in my household not only for my parents but for any adult I addressed–so too was calling any adults “Mister,” “Missus” or “Miss” paired with their last name. “Please” and “thank you” were also important, but “sirs” and “ma’ams” were absolutely sacrosanct. This wasn’t limited to just the kids either. My father too called older men “sir” even into his middle age.

When I went to college in the Chicago area and addressed the few adults I happened to meet this way, I discovered to my surprise that there were whole states full of people who hadn’t grown up saying anything of the kind. In fact, most adults bristled at being addressed as a “sir” or “ma’am” or “mister” or “miss,” saying that it made them feel old. They would usually laugh at my parochial charm, but sometimes they were quite serious. “Don’t call me that.”

Most non-Southerners think of Southern manners as just a culturally ingrained pattern of speech, the waters that we swim in. What is less known is that not everybody says “sir and ma’am” in the South, and it is not just absorbed by growing up there as if by osmosis. It takes some pretty intentional parental instruction to produce a child capable of good manners even in the more courtly milieu of the South, and not everyone achieves it. This is because saying your “sirs and ma’ams” is not just idiomatic, it serves a very important function for which there is no equivalent in the North. All over the nation, boys and girls, if they are brought up with attentive parents, are taught to respect their elders, but children in the South are also supplied with the added benefit of a script. Not only is one admonished to be respectful, but one is also taught the exact words with which to broadcast one’s respect.

This is especially useful for children, since speaking to adults is always a daunting task. As a child, you know that, even if you are exceptionally bright for your age, you cannot be half clever enough to actually interest adults beyond momentary amusement. You also know that, because of your lack of life experience, your superficial cuteness is your only reliable asset, and if you’re male, then this option is closed to you forever once you hit 12. But if supplied with the proper code words–“sir,” “ma’am,” “mister,” “miss”–then a child can communicate a good deal to the adults around him:  that he is at their service, that he knows their names (or cares to know them), and that he acknowledges that he owes some indefinite duty to them. In return, the adult offers compliments (“oh what a nice young man!”), cordiality, and especially that most valuable of treasures when one is young:  attention. The strength of this exchange is that it is easy for the youngster to initiate, and it costs nothing to reward.

The biggest misconception about Southern manners is that they exist solely for the vanity of adults. Speaking from experience, however, I can report that they actually serve to benefit the younger party, not to stroke the egos of the elders. What generally follows from a successful exchange of manners for a youth is some measure of greater inclusion into the adult world. You may well be asked by the adult you addressed to complete some task because they have now judged you, based on your respectful speech, to be useful and intelligent. If you have the presence of mind to remember your Ps and Qs, then you’ll probably be a reliable junior partner in mending a fence or fetching the correct tools needed to change the oil in a tractor, or even in just riding along to the gas station to pick up some ice. All of these little episodes may seem insignificant, but they offer kids important expansions to their world of experience.

These little adventures only increase in significance if the child’s patron is an adult who is not their parent. It is commonly said that it “takes a village” to raise a child, but the mechanism by which this occurs is left out of the platitude. The truth is that the benevolent villager usually needs some prompting if he is going to find it worth it to take another man’s child under his wing, even if in some small way. Respectful speech subtly supplies an invitation to take an interest in a child that is not your own, and also some superficial assurance that such interest will not be wasted on a closed or undisciplined mind. On the child’s side of the exchange, this is just a total win, as there is nothing more exciting as a kid than to be included in whatever is going on. The coded exchange of Southern manners gains children access to the invaluable fruits of inclusion into adults’ affairs and experience and has the power to facilitate good relationships between youth and adults despite vast gulfs in generation, experience, or cognitive development. Of course it isn’t only saying the right words that achieve this effect–one also needed to actually practice qualities of deference, industriousness, and respect to be fully appreciated as a “nice young man”–but as a child, saying my “sirs” and “ma’ams” really were the magic words that opened up the possibility of an entrance into adult life.

I’ve also heard Southern manners criticized on the grounds that they aren’t “genuine” since they are practiced out of habit rather than conviction. Perhaps this is true some of the time, but this objection is far too Puritan to be taken seriously. Requiring one to exercise a purely spontaneous social grace is rather like demanding that all prayers be spontaneous. And we churchgoers know from experience that most “spontaneous” prayers, when they do manage to resist informally accepted scripts–“Heavenly father we come before you today…set your hedge of protection around us…bless this food to our bodies,” etc.–tend to devolve into endless repetitions of needless transitional clauses: “Lord we just..we just…just.” Most of us are completely genuine when we come before God, but sometimes we just need to know the words to say.

This of course does not mean that without distinct manner codes the benefits I’ve described above cannot be incurred, but I’d hazard to say that the goods are delivered far less frequently elsewhere than in the South. I don’t mean to suggest that folk up north aren’t brought up to be respectful or kind (in the Midwest at least, they’re the salt of the earth), they just very often aren’t taught how to express it, and so the benefits occasioned by respectfulness are halting, infrequent, and usually limited to only one or two very close family friends. It was not until I reached Illinois that I came into contact with “awkwardness” as a fetishized and much joked-about phenomenon. It seemed to be expected that encounters with elders would produce situations of awkwardness to be giggled about later, and so I experienced the spheres of youth and advanced age at their widest divergence during my college years, ironically, as I began to enter adulthood myself. Without any common script to fall back on, it is often very hard to know what to say to people who are different than yourself, whatever your age. Awkwardness flourishes where shared codes of manners recede.

It is often unfairly supposed that declines in all civilized things are the perennial fault of successive generations of unruly and wayward youth. But in the case of manners, I actually blame the behavior of generations of adults who cannot or will not allow anyone to perceive them as elders. In places like Illinois, where a vague egalitarian ethos rules the day, manners are perceived as the hangovers of a courtly and hierarchical past, and their dissolution is spun as a victory for equality. Here, folks are more interested in breaking down recently discovered forms of discrimination like “Ageism” and its odd cousin “Adultism”, with the view of further establishing absolute equality across generational lines.

While these movements are well-intentioned and their concerns may not be entirely invented, the language of rights and equality is fairly useless when it comes to actually interacting with someone born in a different time than one’s own. It is unrealistic and even a little cruel to expect that children and youth form peer relationships with their elders, unaided by anything outside their own minds; and, to be honest, the project is more than a little daunting even as a young adult when dealing with someone, say, twenty years one’s senior. In this respect, I think an agreed upon code of manners is an absolutely essential ingredient in fostering positive contact across generational lines, and building a safer and more trusting society besides. A social code that affords children and youth opportunities for respect and deference is beneficial to these young ages, as it gives them something solid and valuable to offer their elders at an age when they haven’t yet had time to gather the experience needed to hold their own in conversation or relationship with older people. This is why I think a loss of manners goes harder on the young than the old.

Certainly, manners are not the most pressing concern for our country today, but as the song goes, you don’t know what you’ve got ’till it’s gone, and in a day where the eroding social fabric of neighborhoods and communities is frequently decried and inequality increases apace, manners may be a more significant tool for social cohesion than we think. So what to do about it? It is certainly possible that manners may be revived in places where they have fallen out of fashion, but it is difficult to know how to re-seed them. The Southern practice of teaching children to say their “sirs” and “ma’ams” does no good if those gestures are received as oddities or sometimes even offenses by the adults they are directed toward.  The onus is on the established generations rather than the new ones.

It is probably futile to attempt to reinstate lost social code words, as such self-conscious cultural change is rarely achievable. But I do think it is worthwhile to encourage my fellows as we enter the more established adulthood of our thirties not to balk when we are treated as elders. We should accept the gifts of experience given to us by long life and try to find ways to impart them to younger generations. We are kidding ourselves if we think that youth don’t care what their elders think about them (if you have any doubt on that score, just teach a class of high-schoolers, and you will be disabused of the notion that age carries no power). Perhaps by cultivating an attitude of security in advanced age and grasping–instead of denying–the natural authority that it confers, we can once again start to practice the benevolent attentiveness that younger generations crave, affirming their good qualities with admiration and inclusion and thereby encouraging them to practice the sort of polite and respectful behavior that will serve them well in their adult lives. If we are fortunate, then an acceptable shorthand will emerge in our patterns of speech that will afford youth the ability to cue that inter-generational exchange all on their own, increasing the chances that, after they have grown up, they too will one day reward those magic words with the sort of attention and informal apprenticeship that is crucial to the cultivation of all good men and women.

“Well, what a nice, respectful young man.  Say, I could use some help over here.  Why don’t you give me a hand?”

20 Responses to “Yes Sir, Yes Ma’am”

  1. Sally

    Excellent! There is hypocrisy in all people and communities, but being nice, kind, and deferential to one another makes a society a much, much better place to live. And it works better as well. You are right on about the deficit we have in failing to consider age as something to be revered and valued, and the fault being with adults in denial for fear of losing their youth and desirability.

  2. CAROL


    • Paul

      Lol – Good one, Carol! My whole family enjoyed your histrionic pantomime of a humorless feminist ideologue. (My teenage daughters especially enjoyed your use of all capitol letters.)


      I know, I know… It sounds stilted and lacks your fresh originality, but I’ll keep trying, OK?

      • Dan Farris

        Well said, Paul… Well said! I was raised to say ma’am and sir when talking to anyone at any age as an alternative to using their names. It was also socially more unifying and friendly when talking to kids. “Yes, ma’am… that’s a very pretty dress and shoes; be sure to keep out of the wet grass.” Or, “No, sir… you can’t try to ride him even if he is a big dog.” I was raised to say my sirs and ma’ams to anyone old enough to speak with and understand.

    • Anonymous

      As the article mentions, sir and ma’am are signs of respect. But if you’d rather people disrespect you, I’m sure it could be arranged.

    • Kimberly Skalyo

      You are part of the problem!!!! This animalistic society of rudeness, Self absorption, and just plain ignorance of everything that the rest of us assume that others are being taught at home andclearly they are not, are unacceptable!!!! You obvious don’t understanding what etiquette or manners are! When someone calls you ma’am or sir they are showing you respect, I know that might blow your mind that someone could possibly show you respect, But however there are so many of us out there that demand our children be respectful of others. And here’s a wake up call for you……. this has nothing and I mean nothing to do with age!!!!! JUST RESPECT!!!! WOW, crazy right!!! In a civilized society this is how most would like to be treated (it should be all). There will always be deep woods, grass huts and other places that people like yourself can go live in, because without civility, respect, and manners or just trying to be conscious of other people’s feelings …… I’m sure this it’s a world even you would wanna live in!!!

  3. Rene

    Born & raised in S. Louisiana, Sir & Ma’am were a MUST. At 7 or 15, we said ma’am & sir to our housekeeper & yard man & as we got older, we still said it even to younger adults. It was not acceptable to answer “yes” or “okay” much less “yea”. When teens started calling me “ma’am” & I was 22, I almost died & would say “oh my, I feel old now. But I’m kind of just kidding, keep those polite manners.”
    — im 51 now & have traveled extensively throughout the U.S. finding virtually no one from the north saying “ma’am”. As Carol stated, they found it very offensive. I did not find that was the case with “Sir”.
    — Now my delima – my family (2 kids, 10 & 12 at the time) moved to No. VA ~5 yrs ago. I started with their early education teachers asking if they used “ma’am” &/or “Sir” – I thought there was a sliver of hope that this respect in my opinion would stay alive after going back too many generations to count. But my hopes were soon crushed. Being an hour outside of D.C., the diversity in culture was so new to us (a good thing). There were 29 nationalities in their elementary school alone. So, I blame some of the “loss” on that. However, even with the diversity, the vast majority would still be saying “Sir” & “Ma’am” in the La schools but alas not here. I rarely hear it & ONLY from those raised in the south. So we’ve started over & if you think about it even in the Sr. Mgmt. Corporate world, the “new” responses would be typical. I mean even ornery CEOs don’t usually say just “yea” to their subordinates. That to me is just rude. So, although other properly raised teens do say “yea” that is unacceptable from our kids. Period. & most of the time a one word “yes” is unacceptable as well bc you can easily, politely & business world ready answer with “yes, Ms. Jones” or “yes, that would be great” or “yes, please” or “yes mom!” (tho mine is more likely “no mom”) or just “I would love to…”. Same applies to “No” but I find that one easier bc “No, thank you” works as the short answer in a great deal of scenarios. Again the Sir issue doesn’t seem to be an issue but for consistency, we’re doing the same type of replies using “Sir” as well finding that it is much easier for the kids to remember “yes sir” & say that probably bc there hasn’t been any “push back”. In sports, you MUST answer with “….Sir or Coach”. In the military “Sir” & “Ma’am” &/or rank is required. So bottom line, even if “yea” is said in a nice tone followed by “please”, it’s still not acceptable in our house. My favorite, which I must admit is not commonplace, is “yes mom, I’ll do that right away!” Just let me say, if I ever hear “yea, WHAT-EV-ER” that kid just might get a good ol southern punishment like in the old days. Now, you can’t even raise your voice to your child in public or God forbid, Child Protection will come knocking. But that’s a whole other “novel response” from Rene. Be well & wish me luck with my hooligans. I don’t have my “village” anymore & boy do I understand & appreciate that true analogy now so I need all of the luck & blessings I can get raising a 14 yr going on 30 daughter & one of the most intelligent & THE MOST irresponsible 16 yr son with a serious temper! My 6’2″, 285 lb. hubby has few issues but mom being 5’2″ having to look way up to a “wall” – the boy is like a linebacker, has a few more than big dad. Btw. the “yes mom, I’ll come do that right away” is on my short term bucket list for him. I say short term, bc I’d have a heart attack! I hope somebody gets something out of this ranting bc I RARELY post anything online bc as u can see, I get on a roll. So, have a good 2015+ to you all! Rene

  4. Jen

    I absolutely hate ma’am and sir. I live in FL and I do not believe in it. I might have been born and raised in the south, but I am definitely not a southerner, and I will never say ma’am and/or sir to anyone, or teach my kids to. Kind regards, Jen.

    • christian

      Sir and Ma’am are good manners even when you are or are not a southerner

  5. Casey

    I’ve done a good bit of research in the southeast (LA to NC down to where I live in FL). I find that contemporary types or more liberal households don’t use “ma’am” or “sir.” Households that diligently hold these terms of respect as part of speech typically have a more conservative set of values.
    For you guys/gals/”whatever you wanna be todays” that hate it or think its disrespectful(or my favorite in the thread, “CONDESCENDING” and “DEROGATORY”)… keep it that way. We the people whom wish to conduct our lives with manners and respect for others can use this as a secret code to identify you libs. 🙂

  6. Lee Ann Key

    People who don’t have enough self respect to show others any respect like saying sir and ma’am will never ever get very far at all in life. And they’re children are doomed because of the lack of respect they taught them.

  7. Lissy

    I almost never comment online but I really wanted to because you seem to not understand the North perspective at all of “Ma’am and Sir” and why it IS offensive.

    Northern culture was settled greatly by Scandinavians and Western Europeans who each had strict cultural views.
    In Norway- where majority Minnesota, Wisconsin and Ohio are from culturally, you NEVER refer to someone as Mr. or Mrs. – I know you are thinking WHAT??? Allow me to explain. In Norway the basic principle that guides ALL Norwegians is “you are no better and no lesser than any other human”. The idea of equality of the sexes actually hails from there. What this means is that in Norway you never refer to your friends parents, your teachers, or anybody by their last name with Mr./Mrs. attached. ONLY first names are EVER used as a sign of ultimate respect. You are showing that you see that they are the same as you. Not set above you by age, nor by their job. They are human. They are therefore your equal and you are theirs. The respect is implicit. You don’t pry into their life, you don’t share stories with others about them- especially not to strangers. You keep your likes and dislikes to yourself. You don’t judge others. Thus the phrase “ma’am” doesn’t exist either. Therefore when they hear it they see that you are pretending deference by setting you above them in a brief way either to insult their age or their status in regards to your own.

    In England – where quite a lot of the Northeastern people historically came from there is a different type of respect. It includes a rigid hierarchy that most Southern Americans think they understand but they really haven’t a clue. The Queen is the ONLY person that is allowed to be called “Ma’am” or “Your Majesty”. A Royal in line to the throne is “Your Royal Highness”, a lesser Duchess is “Your Grace”, a Countess is “Your Ladyship”, a Gentleman’s daughter is “Madam”- I know this may seem odd but most other women are thusly called “Miss” even if married.
    This hierarchy is so rigid that a shocking thing happens which no American would notice in Pride and Prejudice. Mr Darcy – a gentleman of vast wealthy- says he wants to introduce his sister Georgiana to Miss Elizabeth Bennett. You are thinking so what??? In England the person of GREATER STANDING (aka Georgiana, a wealthy gentleman’s daughter who is related to Lady Catherine- a Noble connection) would always have the person introduced TO THEM. So technically what Darcy is saying is “I see you Elizabeth as MY equal, in status, in wealth, in family connections even above my own sister – instead of introducing YOU to my sister- I will introduce HER to YOU.” You would never introduce the Queen of England to the Duchess of Cambridge. You would introduce the Duchess of Cambridge to the Queen of England. That is what I mean by RIGID. It still exists as well. So when you in the south call everyone “ma’am” not only are you insulting northerners you are insulting the very culture that that term comes from. It therefore DOES come across as being a bit “fake” and upsetting. As if you are pretending that you care about their status when clearly- “bless your heart” – you don’t.

    • Alex Wilgus

      As to Norway, I would be pleased if my children never imitated them or any of their Scandinavian cousins. Their societies cohere today by a thin spread of faux-socialism laid onto racial homogeneity and apocalyptic sexual permissiveness.

      As to England, manners codes rigidly cohered with class distinctions. In America, there are no formal rules for which social classes are “your betters.” The concept of social class doesn’t exist in America (even though it does in practice) so the manners codes will proceed by different rules: i.e. who are your elders. Anyway, I can guarantee you that Northerners don’t know a thing about 17th Century English manners. The source of their offense to “ma’am” and “sir” is that they don’t want to “feel old.” So that’s a clever bit of cultural analysis but it just doesn’t correspond to present reality.

  8. Lloyd

    I have a question concerning the use of “Sir and Ma’am” in the South: Is it conventional to use these honorifics when, say, a thirty-something “Sir” is sexually assaulting a 14 year old “Ma’am”? So the child predator displays his respect for his pubescent prey by referring to her as “Ma’am”? And when employing the N-word in the middle of a lynching, does protocol require the assembled rabble to refer to the hapless man being strung up as “N-word, Sir”? I’m curious.

    • Alex Wilgus

      I probably shouldn’t have approved this but one rarely gets to see, in the wild, a non sequitur put forward so confidently as an argument (for something, I’m not sure what.)

    • Tracy Moore

      What a horrific question. Where in the world would one come up with a question such as this to ask about the politeness of saying “ma’am” and “sir” out of respect? Clearly, a pedophile and anyone prejudiced would not have any sort of manners, whatsoever. How dare you infer such disgusting topics into the discussion of manners.

  9. Selma

    What an ignorant thing to say. I
    A predator is a predator and anything out of his mouth is not worth anyone’s time. I doubt Roy Moore had anything on his mind but his own agenda and threats lodged at his victim. No, people being lynched were not given the courtesy of a “ma’am” or “sir.” They were not considered at all and the folks doing the lynching deserved no respect nor regard as human beings. What a ridiculous thing to ask.

  10. Robert

    I will respectfully disagree. I was born and raised in the Midwest and, as is mentioned, this is not an expected action there. We are raised very pragmatically, and worrying about such terms is not necessary. Respect is shown through actions, not a forced term. Because of work, I’ve now lived in the South for almost 20 years and I’ve come to appreciate that the term can be as meaningful or meaningless as the person using it. I’ve heard plenty of times a Southerner say “yes, sir” to me when knew what he was really thinking was “f**k you.” His words were a lie. And, don’t get me started on this “bless your heart” nonsense…


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